glyph 317: future . a true end of history . change so rapid it becomes incomprehensible by humans ... science fiction, science truth ... VISION-21 Symposium, NASA Lewis Research Center, Ohio Aerospace Institute ... Whole Earth Review


"The Singularity", by Vernor Vinge, 1993

a brief period of time when everything changes

The original version of this article was presented at the VISION-21 Symposium sponsored by NASA Lewis Research Center and the Ohio Aerospace Institute, March 30-31, 1993. A slightly changed version appeared in the Winter 1993 issue of "Whole Earth Review".


Within thirty years, we will have the technological means to create superhuman intelligence.
Shortly after, the human era will be ended. Is such progress avoidable? If not to be avoided, can events be guided so that we may survive? These questions are investigated. Some possible answers (and some further dangers) are presented.

"The acceleration of technological progress has been the central feature of this century. I argue in this paper that we are on the edge of change comparable to the rise of human life on Earth. The precise cause of this change is the imminent creation by technology of entities with greater than human intelligence."

complete article at:

Excellent New York Times article on the Singularity, by Ashlee Vance, June 11, 2010 •••
Mon, Jul 10, 2006; edited/updated November 26, 2015

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