glyph 402: path to great civilizations . critical thought . constructive argument . conjecture & refutation, Karl Popper ... history, Saracen Spain . Islam, Christianity, Judaism . collaboration ... Ijtihâd, an important Arabic word ..... how great works of the classical world came to the West ..... Imad-ad-Dean Ahmad, The Minaret of Freedom . Irshad Manji, Project Ijtihad
The path to great civilizations is cleared by critical thought. As error is found space opens for new conjectures. The word ijtihâd is Arabic for independent critical thought, for the seeking of truth wherever and however it may be found.
Pursuit of ijtihâd produces vigorous conversation and collegial contest of viewpoint. Out of such chaos emerges magnificent and unforeseeable order. There are those who think that God may be pleased with those who out of reverence and intellectual integrity limit certainty.
Explorers everywhere may rejoice in and learn from the history of ijtihâd, especially as revealed by studies of Saracen Spain during the time of Muslim, Christian, and Jewish collaboration in the translation and publication of great works.
This glyph will be updated as our understanding of the topic improves and our potential to invest increases.
Vortex Ijtihad: https://explorersfoundation.org/ijtihad.html
July 28, 2007; edited/updated November 19, 2016