glyph 495: history . The Netherlands, Holland, Belgium ... Dutch Republic . Johan van Oldenbarneveldt . Jacob Arminius, Arminians ... merchants, peace, free trade . liberal principals, limitation of government .... important events in the emergence of freeorder ... Vortex Archer
Murray N. Rothbard, Conceived in Liberty, Vol. 1, Ch. 38, "The Formation of New Netherland", writing of the early 1600s, on pg. 294:
The fundamental cleavage in the politics of the United Provences developed when the merchants of the cities of Holland and of other provences, led by the foremost Dutch statesman, Johan van Oldenbarneveldt, successfully pursued peace negotiations with Spain despite the complete opposition of the Dutch military leaders. The Dutch merchants desired peace in order to end the threat of military dictatorship and the burden of taxes, and to gain access to world markets through free and peaceful trade. These merchants formed the basis of the Republican party, standing for liberal principles of peace, free trade, liberty, and, in particular, the maintenance of the original Dutch confederation of towns and provinces. In that confederation, each level of governmental power was strictly limited by the application of a virtual unanimity principle. The Republicans, furthermore, tended to be Arminians, following the liberal Dutch Protestant theolgian Jacobus Arminius, who emphasized free will, natural law, and religious toleration as over against the Calvinist doctrines of predestination and state enforcement of religious conformity.
Audio recording of chapter 38
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January 12, 2010; edited/updated November 19, 2016